Dr. Edward Bach (1890-1936) was an English conventional and homeopathic doctor who determined that dilute infusions of flowers and tree buds could be as effective as the properties of plant roots, leaves, bark and trace minerals. Flower remedies work for the emotions in the same way that herbal remedies work for physical ailments. Donna Cunningham in her Flower Remedies Handbook says, "These mild, natural substances represent a well-tested but nontraditional healing system that works gently on the mind/body connection. Flower remedies are not herbal extracts, even though some are made from the flowers of herbs. Flower remedies are self-adjusting, which means that when the remedy is incorrect, it simply has no effect. There are no harmful side-effects, either."